Q: What is Amazon Snowball?
Amazon Snowball is a service that provides secure, rugged devices, so you can bring Amazon Web Services computing and storage capabilities to your edge environments, and transfer data into and out of Amazon Web Services. Those rugged devices are commonly referred to as Amazon Snowball Edge devices. Previously, Amazon Snowball referred specifically to an early hardware version of these devices, however that model has been replaced by updated hardware. Now the Amazon Snowball service operates with Snowball Edge devices, which include on-board computing capabilities as well as storage.
Q: What is Snowball Edge?
Snowball Edge is an edge computing and data transfer device provided by the Amazon Snowball service. It has on-board storage and compute power that provides select Amazon Web Services for use in edge locations. Snowball Edge comes in two options, Storage Optimized, to support local data processing and collection in disconnected environments such as ships, windmills, and remote factories. Learn more about its features here.
Q: What happened with the original 50 TB and 80 TB Amazon Snowball devices?
The original Snowball devices were transitioned out of service and Snowball Edge Storage Optimized are now the primary devices used for data transfer.
Q: Can I still order the original Snowball 50 TB and 80 TB devices?
No. For data transfer needs now, please select the Snowball Edge Storage Optimized devices.
Q: What is the Snowball Client?
The Snowball Client is software that you install on a local host computer and use to efficiently identify, compress, encrypt, and transfer data from the directories you specify to a Snowball.
Q: How does Snowball Edge work?
You start by requesting one or more Snowball Edge Storage Optimized devices in the Amazon Web Services Management Console based on how much data you need to transfer and the compute needed for local processing. The buckets, data, Amazon EC2 AMIs, you select are automatically configured, encrypted, and preinstalled on your devices before they are shipped to you. Once a device arrives, you connect it to your local network and set the IP address either manually or automatically with DHCP. Then use the Snowball Edge client software, job manifest, and unlock code to verify the integrity of the Snowball Edge device or cluster, and unlock it for use. The manifest and unlock code are uniquely generated and crypto-logically bound to your account and the Snowball Edge shipped to you, and cannot be used with any other devices. Data copied to Snowball Edge is automatically encrypted and stored in the buckets you specify.
All logistics and shipping is done by us, so when copying is complete and the device is ready to be returned, the E Ink shipping label will automatically update the return address, ensuring that the Snowball Edge device is delivered to the correct Amazon Web Services facility. Once the device ships, you can receive tracking status via email messages sent by Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS) or directly from the console. All of the management for your Snowball Edge resources can be performed in the Amazon Web Services management console and these operations require system engineers.
Q: What is the difference between Snowball Edge and Snowball?
Amazon Snowball now refers to the service overall, and Snowball Edge are the current types of devices that the service uses – sometimes referred to generically as Amazon Snowball devices. Originally, early Snowball hardware designs were for data transport only. Snowball Edge has the additional capability to run computing locally, even when there is no network connection available.
Q: Who should use Snowball Edge?
Consider Snowball Edge if you need to run computing in rugged, austere, mobile, or disconnected (or intermittently connected) environments. Also consider it for large-scale data transfers and migrations when bandwidth is not available for use of a high-speed online transfer service, such as Amazon DataSync.
Snowball Edge Storage Optimized is the optimal data transfer choice if you need to securely and quickly transfer terabytes to petabytes of data to Amazon Web Services. You can use Snowball Edge Storage Optimized if you have a large backlog of data to transfer or if you frequently collect data that needs to be transferred to Amazon Web Services and your storage is in an area where high-bandwidth internet connections are not available or cost-prohibitive.
You can also use Snowball Edge to run edge computing workloads, such as performing local analysis of data on a Snowball Edge cluster and writing it to the S3-compatible endpoint. You can streamline it into existing workflows leveraging built-in capabilities such as the NFS file interface and migrate files to the device while maintaining file metadata.Snowball Edge can operate in remote locations or harsh operating environments, such as factory floors, oil and gas rigs, mining sites, hospitals, and on moving vehicles. Snowball Edge is pre-configured and does not have to be connected to the internet, so processing and data collection can take place within isolated operating environments. Snowball Edge allows you to run the same software at the edge and access select Amazon Web Services capabilities as you would with full connectivity to Amazon Web Services.
Q. Can I use Snowball Edge to migrate data from one Amazon Web Services Region to another Amazon Web Services Region?
No. Snowball Edge is intended to serve as a data transport solution for moving high volumes of data into and out of a designated Amazon Web Services Region. For use cases that require data transfer between Amazon Web Services China Regions, we recommend using S3 Cross-Region Replication as an alternative.
Q: How much data can I transfer using Snowball Edge?
You can transfer virtually any amount of data with Snowball Edge, from a few terabytes to many petabytes. You can transfer up to approximately 80 TB with a single Snowball Edge Storage Optimized device and can transfer even larger data sets with multiple devices, either in parallel, or sequentially.
Q: How long does it take to transfer my data?
Data transfer speed is affected by a number of factors including local network speed, file size, and the speed at which data can be read from your local servers. The end-to-end time to transfer up to 80 TB of data into Amazon Web Services with Snowball Edge is approximately one week, including the usual shipping and handling time in Amazon Web Services data centers.
Q: How long can I have a Snowball Edge for a specific job?
For security purposes, jobs using an Amazon Snowball Edge device must be completed within 360 days of being prepared. If you need to keep one or more devices for longer than 360 days, contact Amazon Web Services Support. Otherwise, after 360 days, the device becomes locked, can no longer be accessed, and must be returned. If the Amazon Snowball Edge device becomes locked during an import job, we can still transfer the existing data on the device into Amazon S3.
Q: What are the specifications of the Snowball Edge devices?
Please see the Snowball Edge documentation page for a complete list of hardware specs, including network connections, thermal and power requirements, decibel output, and dimensions.
Q: What network interfaces does Snowball Edge support?
Snowball Edge Storage Optimized for data transfer devices have two 10G RJ45 ports, one 10/25G SFP28 port, and one 40G/100G QSFP28 port.
Snowball Edge Storage Optimized for edge compute devices have one 10G RJ45 port, one 10/25G SFP28 port, and one 40G QSFP+ port.
Q: What is the Snowball Edge default shipping option?
Can I choose expedited shipping?As a default, Snowball Edge uses two-day shipping by UPS. You can choose expedited shipping if your jobs are time-sensitive.
Edge Computing Capabilities
Q: Does Snowball Edge support EC2 instances?
Yes. The Snowball Edge Storage Optimized option supports SBE1 instance.
The support for EC2-compatible instances on Snowball Edge devices enables you to build and test on EC2, then operate your AMI on a Snowball Edge to address workloads that sit in remote or disconnected locations.
Q: When should I use the EC2 compatible instances on Amazon Snowball Edge?
Snowball has 10Gbps network interfaces with RJ45, SFP+ copper, and SFP+ optical network ports.
Q: Can multiple Snowball Edge devices be clustered together?
Yes, multiple Snowball Edge Storage Optimized can be clustered into a larger durable storage pool with a single S3-compatible endpoint. For example, if you have 6 Storage Optimized devices, they can be configured to be a single cluster that exposes a single S3 compatible endpoint with 400 TB of storage. Alternatively, they can be used individually without clustering, each hosting a separate S3 compatible endpoint with 80 TB of usable storage. A durable cluster cannot be created using a mix of Storage Optimized and Compute Optimized devices.
Q: What Amazon EC2 features does Amazon Snowball Edge support?
The Amazon EC2 endpoint running on Amazon Snowball Edge, provides a set of EC2 features that customers would find most useful for edge computing scenarios. This includes APIs to run, terminate, and describe your installed AMIs and running instances. Snowball Edge also supports block storage for EC2 images, which is managed using a set of the Amazon EBS API commands.
Q: Can I use an existing Amazon EBS volume with Amazon Snowball Edge?
No. At this time, you cannot use an existing EBS volume with Amazon Snowball Edge, however, Snowball Edge does offer block storage volumes, which are managed with an EBS-compatible API.
Q: What steps do I need to take to run Amazon EC2 instances on Amazon Snowball Edge?
To run instances, provide the AMI IDs during job creation and the images come pre-installed when the device is shipped to you.
Q: Can I convert my images from other hypervisors to AMIs and vice versa?
Yes. You can import or export your KVM/VMware images to AMIs using the EC2 VM Import/Export service. Refer to the VM Import/Export documentation for more details.
This is necessary in order to run licensed software, including operating systems other than those which the Amazon Snowball service provides.
Q: What operating systems can I run using this feature?
Amazon EC2 on Snowball Edge provides default support for a variety of free-to-use operating systems (OS) like Ubuntu and CentOS. They will appear as AMI’s that can be loaded onto Snowball Edge without any modification. To run other OSes that require licenses on Snowball Edge EC2 instances, you must provide your own license, and then export the AMI using Amazon EC2 VM Import/Export (VMIE).
Q: What kind of workloads can I run on SBE1 and SBE-C instances?
SBE1 instances feature up to 40 vCPUs, ephemeral instance storage for root volumes, and 32GB of memory, and are designed to support edge applications, such as IoT sensor data collection, image compression, data collection, and machine learning. SBE1 instances can also use Snowball Edge SATA SSD and HDD block storage for persistent volumes.
Q: How do I ensure that my AMIs are compatible to run on EC2-compatible instances on Amazon Snowball Edge?
AMIs that run on the C5 instance type in Amazon Web Services are compatible with SBE1 instances available on Amazon Snowball Edge Storage Optimized in the vast majority of cases. We recommend that you first test your applications in the C5 instance type to ensure they can be run on the Snowball Edge Storage Optimized device.
Q: Can I install more than one instance on a device?
Yes. You can run multiple instances on a device as long as the total resources used across all instances are within the limits for your Snowball Edge device.
Q: How do I use SBE1 instances on an Amazon Snowball Edge cluster?
All the EC2 compatible instances can run on each node of an Amazon Snowball Edge cluster. When you provision an Amazon Snowball Edge cluster using the Amazon Web Services Management Console, you can provide details for instances to run on each node of the cluster, for example, the AMI you want to run and the instance type and size you want to use. Nodes can use the same or different AMIs across each node in a cluster.
Q: How do I launch an instance manually?
Each AMI has an AMI ID associated with it. You can use run-instance command to start the instance by providing this ID. Running this command returns an instance-id value that can be used to manage this instance.
Q: How do I manage the instances on Amazon Snowball Edge?
You can check the status of all the images that are installed on the device using the describe-images command. To see the active instances of instances running on the device, you can use the describe-instance-status command.
Q: How do I terminate an existing instance?
You can terminate a running instance using the terminate-instance command.
Q: How are my AMIs protected while in transit?
Snowball Edge encrypts all data, including AMIs, with 256-bit encryption. You manage your encryption keys by using the Amazon Key Management Service (KMS). Your keys are never stored on the device and you need both the keys and an unlock code to use the device on-premises. In addition to using a tamper-evident enclosure, Snowball Edge uses industry-standard Trusted Platform Modules (TPM) designed to detect any unauthorized modifications to the hardware, firmware, or software. Amazon Web Services visually and cryptographically inspects every device for any signs of tampering.
Q: Can I add AMIs to my Snowball Edge device after it has been deployed?
Yes. You can import virtual machine (VM) images as AMIs to your Snow device while it is onsite. For more information about importing VM images into Snow devices, see the Snowball Edge documentation.
Q: How is software licensing handled with compute instances on Amazon Snowball Edge?
You are responsible for licensing any software that you run on your instance. Specifically, for Windows operating systems, you can bring your existing license to the running instances on the device, by installing the licensed OS in your AMI in EC2, and then using VM Import/Export to load the AMI to your Snowball Edge device.
Block Storage for Amazon EC2 on Snowball Edge
Q: What is block storage on Amazon Snowball Edge?
You can run block storage on Snowball Edge Storage Optimized devices. You attach block storage volumes to EC2 instances using a subset of Amazon EBS capabilities that enable you to configure and manage volumes for EC2 instances on Snowball Edge devices.
Q: Why should I use Amazon Snowball Edge block storage?
Snowball Edge block storage enables you to have multiple persistent block storage volumes – in addition to your root volume – for your Amazon EC2 based applications on the device. This can provide higher performance and more storage capacity for EC2 applications on Snowball Edge than you can achieve with only a root volume. You can now attach multiple volumes to your EC2 instances. Volumes that are attached to EC2 instances on Snowball Edge persist independently from the life of the instance, enabling you to deploy multiple applications on Snowball Edge, and to start and stop the applications as needed.
Q: What are the types of block storage volumes I can use, and how much capacity can each volume type use?
Snowball Edge block storage provides performance-optimized SSD volumes (sbp1), and capacity-optimized HDD volumes (sbg1), to meet IOPS and throughput requirements for a wide-variety of data processing and data collection applications. Block storage volumes have a maximum size of 10 TB per volume, and you can attach up to 10 volumes to any EC2 instance on Snowball Edge.
On Snowball Edge Storage Optimized, you can use up to 1 TB of SATA SSD for sbp1 volumes, which are good for pre-processing data.
On both the Snowball Edge Storage Optimized, you can use capacity-optimized volumes, sbg1, to store data on HDDs. This volume type is appropriate for data collection and less IOPS-intensive applications. It has a maximum volume size of 10 TB, and you can attach multiple volumes to any instance. You can use up to 86 TB of HDD storage for sbg1 on Snowball Edge Storage Optimized.
Q: How do I get started with block storage on Snowball Edge?
By default, all Snowball Edge devices are now shipped with the block storage feature. Once you unlock the device you can use Amazon CLI or SDK to create volumes and attach them to an Amazon EC2 instance. You can attach multiple volumes to each EC2 instance, however, a single volume can only be attached to a single instance at any time.
Q: How is Snowball Edge block storage different from Amazon EBS?
Snowball Edge block storage has different performance, availability, and durability characteristics than Amazon EBS volumes. Also, it provides only a subset of Amazon EBS capabilities. For example, snapshot functionality is not currently supported on Snowball Edge block storage. Please see Snowball Edge’s technical documentation for a complete list of supported APIs.
Q: Which Amazon EBS APIs does SBE block storage support?
To interact with block storage on SBE, you can use create, delete, attach, detach, and describe volumes EBS APIs. Please see Snowball Edge’s technical documentation for a complete list of supported APIs.
Q: Which Amazon Machine Images can I use on Snowball Edge to utilize block storage?
Any Amazon Machine Image (AMI) running on Snowball Edge can access up to 10 block storage volumes at once. Generic AMIs provided by Amazon Web Services and custom AMIs can access any block storage volume. There are no special requirements to make the block storage volumes work. However, certain operating systems perform better with specific drivers. Please see Snowball Edge’s technical documentation for details.
Q: Can the volumes on one device be accessible to Amazon EC2 instances running on another device?
Volumes created on a single Snowball Edge are only accessible to the EC2 instances running on that device.
Q: How can we monitor storage capacity used by various volumes?
You can use describe-device command from the Snowball client to monitor how much block storage is been used on the device. When you create a volume, all of the storage capacity requested is allocated to it based on the available capacity.
Q: Can I transfer data stored on block storage to Amazon EBS volumes in the cloud?
Not directly, no. Data on block storage volumes on Snowball Edge is deleted when the device returns to Amazon Web Services. If you wish to preserve data in block storage volumes, you must copy the data into the Amazon S3 compatible storage on Snowball Edge. This data will then be copied into your S3 bucket when the device returns to Amazon Web Services.
Q: Can I operate object and block storage on the same device?
Yes, you can use the Amazon S3-compatible object storage, and the Snowball Edge block storage on the same device. The object storage and block storage used for sbg1 volumes share the same HDD capacity. The underlying storage features work together so that an increase in I/O demand for block or object storage does not impede the availability and performance of the other.
Q: Do I need to configure volumes or any storage resources when ordering my Snowball Edge from the Amazon Snow Console?
No, you add volumes to your Amazon EC2 instances after you have received the device.
Q: Do I need to allocate storage resources on the device between block and object storage?
No. You can dynamically add or remove volumes and objects based on your application needs.
Q: Are the volumes encrypted by default?
Snowball Edge is designed with security in mind for the most sensitive data. All data written into block volumes is encrypted by keys provided by you through Amazon Key Management Service (KMS). All volumes are encrypted using the same keys selected during Snowball Edge job creation. The keys are not permanently stored on the device and are erased after loss of power.
Q: What are best practices to achieve optimum performance with Snowball Edge block storage?
Additional volumes attached using the block storage offer up to 10 times higher performance compared to the root volumes. We recommended you use relatively smaller root volumes, and create additional block storage volumes for storing data for your Amazon EC2 applications. Please see Snowball Edge’s technical documentation for performance best practices, and recommended drivers.
Q: In what regions is Snowball available?
Check the Regional Service Availability pages for the latest information.
Q: Can a Snowball be shipped to an alternate Amazon Web Services region?
No. Snowball Edge devices are designed to be requested and used within a single Amazon Web Services Region. The device may not be requested from one Region and returned to another. Check the Regional Service Availability pages for the latest information.
Q: Does Snowball Edge encrypt my data?
Snowball Edge encrypts all data with 256-bit encryption. You manage your encryption keys by using the Amazon Key Management Service (KMS). Your keys are never stored on the device and all memory is erased when it is disconnected and returned to Amazon Web Services.
Q: How does Snowball Edge physically secure my data?
In addition to using a tamper-resistant enclosure, Snowball Edge uses industry-standard Trusted Platform Modules (TPM) designed to detect any unauthorized modifications to the hardware, firmware, or software. Amazon Web Services visually and cryptographically inspects every device for any signs of tampering and to verify that no changes were detected by the TPM.
Q: How does Snowball Edge help digitally secure my data?
Snowball Edge is designed with security in mind for the most sensitive data. All data is encrypted by keys provided by you through Amazon Key Management Service (KMS). The keys are not permanently stored on the device and are erased after loss of power. Applications and Lambda functions run in a physically isolated environment and do not have access to storage. Lastly, after your data has been transferred to Amazon Web Services, your data is securely erased from the device. Snowball Edge devices are hardened against attack and all configuration files are encrypted and signed with keys that are never present on the device.
Q: Is there a way to easily track my data transfer jobs?
Snowball Edge uses an innovative, E Ink shipping label designed to ensure the device is automatically sent to the correct Amazon Web Services facility. When you have completed your data transfer job, you can track it by using Amazon SNS generated text messages or emails, and the console.
Q: Can I get a history of Snowball API calls made on my account for security analysis and operational troubleshooting purposes?
Yes. To receive a history of Snowball API calls made on your account, you simply turn on CloudTrail in the Amazon Snow Management Console; The following API calls in Snowball are not recorded and delivered: DescribeAddress (in response), CreateAddress (in request), DescribeAddresses (in response).
Import Data with Snowball Edge
Q: How do I transfer my data to the Snowball Edge?
After you have connected and activated the Snowball Edge, you can transfer data from local sources to the device through the S3-compatible endpoint or the NFS file interface, both available on the device. You can also use the Snowball client to copy data. To learn more, please refer to the Snowball Edge documentation.
Q: When can I delete the data on my disk(s) after I’ve copied the data onto Snowball Edge and shipped the Snowball Edge back to Amazon Web Services?
Wait to confirm that the Snowball Edge has been received by Amazon Web Services and your data has successfully been transferred into appropriate S3 buckets prior to you deleting any data on your disk(s). While Amazon Web Services verifies the integrity of files copied to Snowball Edge during the S3 transfer, it is your responsibility to verify the integrity of data before deleting it from your disk(s). Amazon Web Services is not liable for any lost or corrupted data during copy or transit.
Q: What do I do when the data has been transferred to the Snowball Edge?
When the data transfer job is complete, the E Ink display on the Snowball Edge automatically updates the return shipping label to indicate the correct Amazon Web Services facility to ship to. Just drop off the Snowball Edge at the nearest UPS and you're all set. You can track the status of your transfer job through Amazon SNS generated text messages or emails, or directly in the Amazon Snow Management Console.
Export Data with Snowball Edge
Q: What does it cost to export my data?
In addition to the Export job fees detailed on our pricing page, you will also be charged all fees incurred to retrieve your data from Amazon S3.
Q: How quickly can I access my exported data?
We typically start exporting your data within 24 hours of receiving your request, and exporting data can take as long as a week. Once the job is complete and the device is ready, we ship it to you using the shipping options you selected when you created the job.
Q: What is Amazon OpsHub for Snow Family?
Amazon OpsHub is an application that you can download from the Snowball resources page. It offers a graphical user interface for managing the Amazon Snow Family devices. Amazon OpsHub makes it easy to setup and manage Amazon Snowball devices enabling you to rapidly deploy edge computing workloads and simplify data migration to the cloud. With just a few clicks in Amazon OpsHub, you can unlock and configure devices, drag-and-drop data to devices, launch and manage EC2 instances on devices, or monitor device metrics. Amazon OpsHub is available globally at no extra charge. [TCY1]Same, no resources page in China [MOU2]We need to identify where to host OpsHub software for china.
Q: How does Amazon OpsHub for Snow Family work?
Amazon OpsHub is an application that you can download and install on any Windows or Mac client machine, such as a laptop. Once you have installed Amazon OpsHub and have your Amazon Snow Family device on site, open Amazon OpsHub and unlock the device. You will then be presented with a dashboard showing your device and its system metrics. You can then begin deploying your edge applications or migrating your data to the device with just a few clicks.
Q: Can I use Amazon OpsHub with a Snow Family device that I ordered before Amazon OpsHub launched?
Yes. However, the task automation features are available for only Snow Family devices ordered after Amazon OpsHub launched on April 16, 2020. All other functionality will be available for all devices, including those ordered before OpsHub launched.
Q: When do I use Amazon OpsHub compared to the Amazon Snow Management Console?
You use Amazon OpsHub to manage and operate your Amazon Snow Family devices and the Amazon services that run on them. Amazon OpsHub is an application that runs on a local client machine, such as a laptop, and can operate in disconnected or connected environments. In contrast, you use the Amazon Snow Management Console to manage and operate the Amazon Web Services running in the cloud. The Amazon Snow Management Console is a web-based application that operates when you have a connection to the internet.
Q: How do I keep my Amazon OpsHub software up to date?
Amazon OpsHub will automatically check for Amazon OpsHub software updates when the client machine that Amazon OpsHub is running on is connected to the internet. When there is a software update, you will be notified on the application and will be given the option to download and update the latest software. Additionally, you can visit the Snowball resources page and check for the latest version of Amazon OpsHub.
Q: Does Amazon OpsHub validate and encrypt the data I transfer to the Amazon Snow Family devices?
Yes. When you copy data to Amazon Snow Family devices using Amazon OpsHub, checksums are used to ensure that the data you copy to the device is the same as the original. Also, all data written to Amazon Snow Family devices is encrypted by default.
Q: How much does it cost to use Snowball Edge?
Please see our Amazon Snowball Edge pricing page for pricing details.
Q: How am I charged for Amazon S3 usage?
Snowball Edge transfers data on your behalf into Amazon Web Services such as Amazon S3. Standard Amazon Web Services service charges apply. Data transferred IN to Amazon Web Services does not incur any data transfer fees, and Standard Amazon S3 pricing fees apply for data stored in S3.
Q: Is there any additional pricing for Snowball Edge block storage?
No, there is no additional charge for this feature.
Q: Can I purchase a Snowball Edge device?
Devices are only available on a per-job pay-as-you-go basis, and are not available for purchase.
Workflow Integration Tools
Q: Does the Snowball Edge support API access?
Yes. The Snowball Job Management API provides programmatic access to the job creation and management features of a Snowball or Snowball Edge. It is a simple, standards-based REST web service interface, designed to work with any Internet development environment.
Q: What can I do with the Snowball Job Management API?
The Amazon Snowball Job Management API allows partners and customers to build custom integrations to manage the process of requesting Snowballs and communicating job status. The API provides a simple web service interface that you can use to create, list, update, and cancel jobs from anywhere on the web. Using this web service, developers can easily build applications that manage Snowball jobs. To learn more, please refer to Amazon Snowball documentation.
Q: What is the S3 Adapter?
The S3 SDK Adapter for Snowball provides an S3-compatible interface for reading and writing data on a Snowball or Snowball Edge.
Q: What can I do with the S3 Adapter?
The S3 Adapter allows customers to help applications write data from file and non-file sources to S3 buckets on the Snowball or Snowball Edge device. It also includes interfaces to copy data with the same encryption as is available through the Snowball client. To learn more, please refer to the Amazon Snowball documentation.
Q: Why would I use the S3 Adapter rather than the Snowball Client?
The Snowball Client is a turnkey tool that makes it easier to copy file-based data to Snowball. Customers who prefer a tighter integration can use the S3 Adapter to easily extend their existing applications and workflows to seamlessly integrate with Snowball.
Q: How is my data secured when I use the S3 Adapter?
The S3 Adapter writes data using the same advanced encryption mechanism that the Snowball Client provides.
Q: Which programming languages does the Snowball S3 Adapter support?
The S3 Adapter communicates over REST which is language-agnostic.