Q. What is Amazon CloudFront?
Amazon CloudFront is a web service that gives businesses and web application developers an easy and cost effective way to distribute content with low latency and high data transfer speeds. Like other Amazon Web Services services, Amazon CloudFront is a self-service, pay-per-use offering, requiring no long term commitments or minimum fees. With CloudFront, your files are delivered to end-users using a global network of edge locations.
Q. What can I do with Amazon CloudFront?
Amazon CloudFront provides a simple way to:
Deliver fast, secure websites: Reach viewers across the globe in milliseconds with built-in data compression, edge compute capabilities, and field-level encryption.
Accelerate dynamic content delivery and APIs: Optimize dynamic web content delivery with the purpose-built and feature-rich Amazon Web Services network infrastructure supporting edge termination and WebSockets.
Stream live and on-demand video: Start streams quickly, play them with consistency, and deliver high-quality video to any device with Amazon Web Services Media Service and AWS Elemental integration.
Distribute patches and updates: Scale automatically to deliver software, game patches, and IoT over-the-air (OTA) updates at scale with high transfer rates.
Q. How do I get started with Amazon CloudFront?
Click the “Create a Free Account” button on the Amazon CloudFront detail page. If you choose to use another Amazon Web Services service as the origin for the files served through Amazon CloudFront, you must sign up for that service before creating CloudFront distributions.
Q. How do I use Amazon CloudFront?
To use Amazon CloudFront, you:
- For static files, store the definitive versions of your files in one or more origin servers. These could be Amazon S3 buckets. For your dynamically generated content that is personalized or customized, you can use Amazon EC2 – or any other web server – as the origin server. These origin servers will store or generate your content that will be distributed through Amazon CloudFront.
- Register your origin servers with Amazon CloudFront through a simple API call. This call will return a CloudFront.cn domain name that you can use to distribute content from your origin servers via the Amazon CloudFront service. For instance, you can register the Amazon S3 bucket “bucketname.s3.cn-north-1.amazonaws.com.cn” as the origin for all your static content and an Amazon EC2 instance “dynamic.myoriginserver.com” for all your dynamic content. Then, using the API or the Amazon Management Console, you can create an Amazon CloudFront distribution that might return “abc123.cloudfront.cn” as the distribution domain name.
- Include the cloudfront.cn domain name, or a CNAME alias that you create, in your web application, media player, or website. Each request made using the cloudfront.cn domain name (or the CNAME you set-up) is routed to the edge location best suited to deliver the content with the highest performance. The edge location will attempt to serve the request with a local copy of the file. If a local copy is not available, Amazon CloudFront will get a copy from the origin. This copy is then available at that edge location for future requests.
Q. How does Amazon CloudFront lower my costs to distribute content over the Internet?
Like other Amazon Web Services services, Amazon CloudFront has no minimum commitments and charges you only for what you use. Compared to self-hosting, Amazon CloudFront spares you from the expense and complexity of operating a network of cache servers in multiple sites across the internet and eliminates the need to over-provision capacity in order to serve potential spikes in traffic. Amazon CloudFront also uses techniques such as collapsing simultaneous viewer requests at an edge location for the same file into a single request to your origin server. This reduces the load on your origin servers reducing the need to scale your origin infrastructure, which can bring you further cost savings.
Q. How does Amazon CloudFront speed up my entire website?
Amazon CloudFront uses standard cache control headers you set on your files to identify static and dynamic content. Delivering all your content using a single Amazon CloudFront distribution helps you make sure that performance optimizations are applied to your entire website or web application. When using Amazon Web Services origins, you benefit from improved performance, reliability, and ease of use as a result of our ability to track and adjust origin routes, monitor system health, respond quickly when any issues occur, and the integration of Amazon CloudFront with other Amazon Web Services services. You also benefit from using different origins for different types of content on a single site – e.g. Amazon S3 for static objects, Amazon EC2 for dynamic content, and custom origins for third-party content – paying only for what you use.
Q. How is Amazon CloudFront different from Amazon S3?
Amazon CloudFront is a good choice for distribution of frequently accessed static content that benefits from edge delivery—like popular website images, videos, media files or software downloads.
Q. How is Amazon CloudFront different from traditional content delivery solutions?
Amazon CloudFront lets you quickly obtain the benefits of high performance content delivery without negotiated contracts or high prices. Amazon CloudFront gives all developers access to inexpensive, pay-as-you-go pricing – with a self-service model. Developers also benefit from tight integration with other Amazon Web Services services. The solution is simple to use with Amazon S3, Amazon EC2, and Elastic Load Balancing as origin servers, giving developers a powerful combination of durable storage and high performance delivery. Amazon CloudFront also integrates with Amazon Route 53 and Amazon CloudFormation for further performance benefits and ease of configuration.
Q. What types of content does Amazon CloudFront support?
Amazon CloudFront supports content that can be sent using the HTTP or WebSocket protocols. This includes dynamic web pages and applications, such as HTML or PHP pages or WebSocket-based applications, and any popular static files that are a part of your web application, such as website images, audio, video, media files or software downloads. Amazon CloudFront also supports delivery of live or on-demand media streaming over HTTP.
Q. Does Amazon CloudFront work with non-Amazon Web Services origin servers?
Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) is an object storage service that offers industry-leading scalability, data availability, security, and performance. You can use Amazon S3 to store and retrieve any amount of data at any time, from anywhere.
Amazon CloudFront is a content delivery network that works with any origin server that holds the original, definitive versions of your content which could be stored in S3.
Q. How does Amazon CloudFront enable origin redundancy?
For every origin that you add to a CloudFront distribution, you can assign a backup origin that can be used to automatically serve your traffic if the primary origin is unavailable. You can choose a combination of HTTP 4xx/5xx status codes that, when returned from the primary origin, trigger the failover to the backup origin. The two origins can be any combination of Amazon Web Services and non- Amazon Web Services origins.
Q: Does Amazon CloudFront offer a Service Level Agreement (SLA)?
Yes. The Amazon CloudFront SLA provides for a service credit if a customer’s monthly uptime percentage is below our service commitment in any billing cycle.
Q: Can I use the Amazon Web Services Management Console with Amazon CloudFront?
Yes. You can use the Amazon Management Console to configure and manage Amazon CloudFront through a simple, point-and-click web interface. The Amazon Management Console supports most of Amazon CloudFront’s features, letting you get Amazon CloudFront’s low latency delivery without writing any code or installing any software.
Q. Can I point my zone apex (example.com versus www.example.com) at my Amazon CloudFront distribution?
Yes. By using Amazon Route 53, Amazon Web Services’s authoritative DNS service, you can configure an ‘Alias’ record that lets you map the apex or root (example.com) of your DNS name to your Amazon CloudFront distribution. Amazon Route 53 will then respond to each request for an Alias record with the right IP address(es) for your CloudFront distribution. Route 53 doesn't charge for queries to Alias records that are mapped to a CloudFront distribution. These queries are listed as "Intra- Amazon Web Services -DNS-Queries" on the Amazon Route 53 usage report.
Q. Can I serve a custom error message to my end users?
Yes, you can create custom error messages (for example, an HTML file or a .jpg graphic) with your own branding and content for a variety of HTTP 4xx and 5xx error responses. Then you can configure Amazon CloudFront to return your custom error messages to the viewer when your origin returns one of the specified errors to CloudFront.
Q. How long will Amazon CloudFront keep my files at the edge locations?
By default, if no cache control header is set, each edge location checks for an updated version of your file whenever it receives a request more than 24 hours after the previous time it checked the origin for changes to that file. This is called the “expiration period.” You can set this expiration period as short as 0 seconds, or as long as you’d like, by setting the cache control headers on your files in your origin. Amazon CloudFront uses these cache control headers to determine how frequently it needs to check the origin for an updated version of that file. For expiration period set to 0 seconds, Amazon CloudFront will revalidate every request with the origin server. If your files don’t change very often, it is best practice to set a long expiration period and implement a versioning system to manage updates to your files.
Q. How do I remove an item from Amazon CloudFront edge locations?
There are multiple options for removing a file from the edge locations. You can simply delete the file from your origin and as content in the edge locations reaches the expiration period defined in each object’s HTTP header, it will be removed. In the event that offensive or potentially harmful material needs to be removed before the specified expiration time, you can use the Invalidation API to remove the object from all Amazon CloudFront edge locations. You can see the charge for making invalidation requests here.
Q. Is there a limit to the number of invalidation requests I can make?
If you're invalidating objects individually, you can have invalidation requests for up to 3,000 objects per distribution in progress at one time. This can be one invalidation request for up to 3,000 objects, up to 3,000 requests for one object each, or any other combination that doesn't exceed 3,000 objects.
If you're using the * wildcard, you can have requests for up to 15 invalidation paths in progress at one time. You can also have invalidation requests for up to 3,000 individual objects per distribution in progress at the same time; the limit on wildcard invalidation requests is independent of the limit on invalidating objects individually. If you exceed this limit, further invalidation requests will receive an error response until one of the earlier request completes.
You should use invalidation only in unexpected circumstances; if you know beforehand that your files will need to be removed from cache frequently, it is recommended that you either implement a versioning system for your files and/or set a short expiration period.
Q. What are WebSockets?
WebSocket is a real-time communication protocol that provides bidirectional communication between a client and a server over a long-held TCP connection. By using a persistent open connection, the client and the server can send real-time data to each other without the client having to frequently reinitiate connections checking for new data to exchange. WebSocket connections are often used in chat applications, collaboration platforms, multiplayer games, and financial trading platforms. Refer to our documentation to learn more about using the WebSocket protocol with Amazon CloudFront.
Q. When is a WebSocket connection established through Amazon CloudFront?
Amazon CloudFront establishes WebSocket connections only when the client includes the 'Upgrade: websocket' header and the server responds with the HTTP status code 101 confirming that it can switch to the WebSocket protocol.
Q. Does Amazon CloudFront support secured WebSockets over TLS?
Yes. Amazon CloudFront supports encrypted WebSocket connections (WSS) using the SSL/TLS protocol.
Q. What is Field-Level Encryption?
Field-Level Encryption is a feature of CloudFront that allows you to securely upload user-submitted data such as credit card numbers to your origin servers. Using this functionality, you can further encrypt sensitive data in an HTTPS form using field-specific encryption keys (which you supply) before a PUT/ POST request is forwarded to your origin. This ensures that sensitive data can only be decrypted and viewed by certain components or services in your application stack. To learn more about field-level encryption, see Field-Level Encryption in our documentation.
Q. I am already using SSL/ TLS encryption with CloudFront, do I still need Field-Level Encryption?
Many web applications collect sensitive data such as credit card numbers from users that is then processed by application services running on the origin infrastructure. All these web applications use SSL/TLS encryption between the end user and CloudFront, and between CloudFront and your origin. Now, your origin could have multiple micro-services that perform critical operations based on user input. However, typically sensitive information only needs to be used by a small subset of these micro-services, which means most components have direct access to these data for no reason. A simple programming mistake, such as logging the wrong variable could lead to a customer’s credit card number being written to a file.
With field-level encryption, CloudFront’s edge locations can encrypt the credit card data. From that point on, only applications that have the private keys can decrypt the sensitive fields. So the order fulfillment service can only view encrypted credit card numbers, but the payment services can decrypt credit card data. This ensures a higher level of security since even if one of the application services leaks cipher text, the data remains cryptographically protected.
Q. What is the difference between SNI Custom SSL and Dedicated IP Custom SSL of Amazon CloudFront?
Dedicated IP Custom SSL allocates dedicated IP addresses to serve your SSL content at each CloudFront edge location. Because there is a one to one mapping between IP addresses and SSL certificates, Dedicated IP Custom SSL works with browsers and other clients that do not support SNI.
SNI Custom SSL relies on the SNI extension of the Transport Layer Security protocol, which allows multiple domains to serve SSL traffic over the same IP address by including the hostname viewers are trying to connect to. As with Dedicated IP Custom SSL, CloudFront delivers content from each Amazon CloudFront edge location and with the same security as the Dedicated IP Custom SSL feature. SNI Custom SSL works with most modern browsers, including Chrome version 6 and later (running on Windows XP and later or OS X 10.5.7 and later), Safari version 3 and later (running on Windows Vista and later or Mac OS X 10.5.6. and later), Firefox 2.0 and later, and Internet Explorer 7 and later (running on Windows Vista and later). Older browsers that do not support SNI cannot establish a connection with CloudFront to load the HTTPS version of your content. SNI Custom SSL is available at no additional cost beyond standard CloudFront data transfer and request fees.
Q. What is Server Name Indication?
Server Name Indication (SNI) is an extension of the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol. This mechanism identifies the domain (server name) of the associated SSL request so the proper certificate can be used in the SSL handshake. This allows a single IP address to be used across multiple servers. SNI requires browser support to add the server name, and while most modern browsers support it, there are a few legacy browsers that do not. For more details see the SNI section of the CloudFront Developer Guide .
Q. Can I add or modify request headers forwarded to the origin?
Yes, you can configure Amazon CloudFront to add custom headers, or override the value of existing headers, to requests forwarded to your origin. You can use these headers to help validate that requests made to your origin were sent from CloudFront; you can even configure your origin to only allow requests that contain the custom header values you specify. Additionally, if you use multiple CloudFront distributions with the same origin, you can use custom headers to distinguish origin request made by each different distribution. Finally, custom headers can be used to help determine the right CORS headers returned for your requests. You can configure custom headers via the CloudFront API and the Amazon Management Console. There are no additional charges for this feature. For more details on how to set your custom headers, you can read more here.
Q. How does Amazon CloudFront handle HTTP cookies?
Amazon CloudFront supports delivery of dynamic content that is customized or personalized using HTTP cookies. To use this feature, you specify whether you want Amazon CloudFront to forward some or all of your cookies to your custom origin server. Amazon CloudFront then considers the forwarded cookie values when identifying a unique object in its cache. This way, your end users get both the benefit of content that is personalized just for them with a cookie and the performance benefits of Amazon CloudFront. You can also optionally choose to log the cookie values in Amazon CloudFront access logs.
Q. How does Amazon CloudFront handle query string parameters in the URL?
A query string may be optionally configured to be part of the cache key for identifying objects in the Amazon CloudFront cache. This helps you build dynamic web pages (e.g. search results) that may be cached at the edge for some amount of time.
Q. Can I specify which query parameters are used in the cache key?
Yes, the query string whitelisting feature allows you to easily configure Amazon CloudFront to only use certain parameters in the cache key, while still forwarding all of the parameters to the origin.
Q. Is there a limit to the number of query parameters that can be whitelisted?
Yes, you can configure Amazon CloudFront to whitelist up to 10 query parameters.
Q. What parameter types are supported?
Amazon CloudFront supports URI query parameters as defined in section 3.4 of RFC3986. Specifically, it supports query parameters embedded in an HTTP GET string after the ‘?’ character, and delimited by the ‘&’ character.
Q. Does CloudFront support gzip compression?
Yes, CloudFront can automatically compress your text or binary data. To use the feature, simply specify in your cache behavior settings that you would like CloudFront to compress objects automatically and ensure that your client adds Accept-Encoding: gzip in the request header (most modern web browsers do this by default). For more information on this feature, please see our developer guide.
Q. What is streaming? Why would I want to stream?
Generally, streaming refers to delivering audio and video to end users over the Internet without having to download the media file prior to playback. The protocols used for streaming include those that use HTTP for delivery such as Apple’s HTTP Live Streaming (HLS), MPEG Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (MPEG-DASH), Adobe’s HTTP Dynamic Streaming (HDS) and Microsoft’s Smooth Streaming. These protocols are different than the delivery of web pages and other online content because streaming protocols deliver media in real time – viewers watch the bytes as they are delivered. Streaming content has several potential benefits for you and your end-users:
- Streaming can give viewers more control over their viewing experience. For instance, it is easier for a viewer to seek forward and backward in a video using streaming than using traditional download delivery.
- Streaming can give you more control over your content, as no file remains on the viewer's client or local drive when they finish watching a video.
- Streaming can help reduce your costs, as it only delivers the portions of a media file that viewers actually watch. In contrast, with traditional downloads, frequently the whole media file will be delivered to viewers, even if they only watch a portion of the file.
Q. How will I be charged for my use of Amazon CloudFront?
Amazon CloudFront charges are based on actual usage of the service in four areas: Data Transfer Out to Internet, Data Transfer Out to Origin, HTTP/HTTPS Requests, and Invalidation Requests.
- Data Transfer Out to Internet
You are charged for the volume of data transferred out from Amazon CloudFront edge locations, measured in GB. You can see the rates for Amazon CloudFront data transfer to the internet here.
- Data Transfer Out to Origin
You will be charged for the volume of data transferred out, measured in GB, from the Amazon CloudFront edge locations to your origin (both Amazon Web Services origins and other origin servers). You can see the rates for Amazon CloudFront data transfer to Origin here.
- HTTP/HTTPS Requests
You will be charged for number of HTTP/HTTPS requests made to Amazon CloudFront for your content. You can see the rates for HTTP/HTTPS requests here.
- Invalidation Requests
You are charged per path in your invalidation request. A path listed in your invalidation request represents the URL (or multiple URLs if the path contains a wildcard character) of the object you want to invalidate from CloudFront cache. You can request up to 1,000 paths each month from Amazon CloudFront at no additional charge. Beyond the first 1,000 paths, you will be charged per path listed in your invalidation requests. You can see the rates for invalidation requests here.
Q: Does your prices include taxes?
Except as otherwise noted, our prices are exclusive of applicable taxes and duties, including VAT and applicable sales tax.
Q: How am I charged for 304 responses?
HTTP/HTTPS request and the Data Transfer Out to Internet. A 304 response does not contain a message-body; however, the HTTP headers will consume some bandwidth for which you would be charged standard CloudFront data transfer fees. The amount of data transfer depends on the headers associated with your object.