Q: What is Amazon Elasticsearch Service?
Amazon Elasticsearch Service is a managed service that makes it easy to deploy, operate, and scale Elasticsearch clusters in the AWS Cloud.
Q: Which Elasticsearch version does Amazon Elasticsearch Service support?
Amazon Elasticsearch Service currently supports Elasticsearch versions 7.4, 7.1, 6.8, 6.7, 6.5, 6.4, 6.3, 6.2, 6.0, 5.6, 5.5, 5.3, 5.1, 2.3, and 1.5.
Q: What is an Amazon Elasticsearch domain?
Amazon Elasticsearch domains are Elasticsearch clusters created using the Amazon Elasticsearch Service console, CLI, or API. Each domain is an Elasticsearch cluster in the cloud with the compute and storage resources you specify. You can create and delete domains, define infrastructure attributes, and control access and security. You can run one or more Amazon Elasticsearch domains.
Q: What does Amazon Elasticsearch Service manage on my behalf?
Amazon Elasticsearch Service manages the work involved in setting up a domain, from provisioning infrastructure capacity in the network environment you request to installing the Elasticsearch software. Once your domain is running, Amazon Elasticsearch Service automates common administrative tasks, such as performing backups, monitoring instances and patching software. Amazon Elasticsearch Service integrates with Amazon CloudWatch to produce metrics that provide information about the state of the domains. Amazon Elasticsearch Service also offers options to modify your domain instance and storage settings to simplify the task of tailoring your domain based to your application needs.
Q: Does Amazon Elasticsearch Service support the open source Elasticsearch APIs?
Amazon Elasticsearch Service supports most of the commonly used Elasticsearch APIs, so the code, applications, and popular tools that you're already using with your current Elasticsearch environments work seamlessly. For a full list of supported Elasticsearch operations, see our documentation.
Setup and Configuration
Q: Can I create and modify my Amazon Elasticsearch domain through the Amazon Elasticsearch Service console?
Yes. You can create a new Amazon Elasticsearch domain with the Domain Creation Wizard in the console with just a few clicks. While creating a new domain you can specify the number of instances, instance types, and EBS volumes you want allocated to your domain. You can also modify or delete existing Amazon Elasticsearch domains using the console.
Q: Does Amazon Elasticsearch Service support Amazon VPC?
Yes, Amazon Elasticsearch Service is integrated with Amazon VPC. When choosing VPC access, IP addresses from your VPC are attached to your Amazon Elasticsearch Service domain and all network traffic stays within the AWS network and is not accessible to the Internet. Moreover, you can use security groups and IAM policies to restrict access to your Amazon Elasticsearch Service domains.
Q: Can I use CloudFormation Templates to provision Amazon ES domains?
Yes. AWS CloudFormation supports Amazon ES. For more information, see the CloudFormation Template Reference documentation.
Q: Does Amazon Elasticsearch Service support configuring dedicated master nodes?
Yes. You can configure dedicated master nodes for your domains. When choosing a dedicated master configuration, you can specify the instance type and instance count.
Q: Can I create multiple Elasticsearch indices within a single Amazon Elasticsearch domain?
Yes. You can create multiple Elasticsearch indices within the same Amazon Elasticsearch domain. Elasticsearch automatically distributes the indices and any associated replicas between the instances allocated to the domain.
Q: How do I ingest data into my Amazon Elasticsearch Service domain?
Amazon Elasticsearch Service supports the following options for data ingestion:
- Amazon Elasticsearch Service supports integration with Logstash. You can configure your Amazon Elasticsearch Service domain as the data store for all logs arriving from your Logstash implementation.
- You can use native Elasticsearch APIs, such as the index and bulk APIs, to load data into your domain.
Q: Does Amazon Elasticsearch Service support integration with Logstash?
Yes. Amazon Elasticsearch Service supports integration with Logstash. You can set up your Amazon Elasticsearch domain as the backend store for all logs coming through your Logstash implementation. You can set up access control on your Amazon Elasticsearch domain to either use request signing to authenticate calls from your Logstash implementation, or use resource based IAM policies to include IP addresses of instances running your Logstash implementation.
Q: Does Amazon Elasticsearch Service support integration with Kibana?
Yes. Amazon Elasticsearch Service includes a built-in Kibana install that is deployed with your Amazon Elasticsearch Service domain.
Q: Can I create custom reports with the Kibana installation included with Amazon Elasticsearch Service?
Yes. Kibana supports creating and saving custom reports through the user interface. For more information on using Kibana, refer to Kibana documentation.
Q: What storage options are available with Amazon Elasticsearch Service?
You can choose between local on-instance storage or EBS volumes. During domain creation, if you select EBS storage, you can increase and decrease the size of the storage volume as necessary.
Q: What types of EBS volumes does Amazon Elasticsearch Service support?
You can choose between Magnetic, General Purpose, and Provisioned IOPS EBS volumes.
Q: Is there a limit on the amount of EBS storage that can be allocated to an Amazon Elasticsearch domain?
Yes. Amazon Elasticsearch Service supports one EBS volume (max size of 1.5 TB) per instance associated with a domain. With the default maximum of 20 data nodes allowed per Amazon Elasticsearch Service domain, you can allocate about 30 TB of EBS storage to a single domain. You can request a service limit increase up to 100 instances per domain by creating a case with the AWS Support Center. With 100 instances, you can allocate about 150 TB of EBS storage to a single domain.
Q: Can programs running on servers in my own data center access my Amazon Elasticsearch domains?
Yes. The programs with public Internet access can access Amazon Elasticsearch Service domains through a public endpoint. If your data center is already connected to Amazon VPC through Direct Connect or SSH tunneling, you can also use VPC access. In both cases, you can configure IAM policies and security groups to allow programs running on servers outside of AWS to access your Amazon Elasticsearch domains. Click here for more information about signed requests.
Q: How can I migrate data from my existing Elasticsearch cluster to a new Amazon Elasticsearch domain?
To migrate data from an existing Elasticsearch cluster you should create a snapshot of an existing Elasticsearch cluster, and store the snapshot in your Amazon S3 bucket. Then you can create a new Amazon Elasticsearch domain and load data from the snapshot into the newly created Amazon Elasticsearch domain using the Elasticsearch restore API.
Q: How can I scale an Amazon Elasticsearch domain?
Amazon Elasticsearch Service allows you to control the scaling of your Amazon Elasticsearch domains using the console, API, and CLI. You can scale your Amazon Elasticsearch domain by adding, removing, or modifying instances or storage volumes depending on your application needs. Amazon Elasticsearch Service is integrated with Amazon CloudWatch to provide metrics about the state of your Amazon Elasticsearch domains to enable you to make appropriate scaling decisions for your domains.
Q: Does scaling my Amazon Elasticsearch domain require downtime?
No. Scaling your Amazon Elasticsearch domain by adding or modifying instances, and storage volumes is an online operation that does not require any downtime.
Q: What options does Amazon Elasticsearch Service provide for node failures?
Amazon Elasticsearch Service automatically detects node failures and replaces the node. The service will acquire new instances, and will then redirect Elasticsearch requests and document updates to the new instances. In the event that the node cannot be replaced, customers will be able to use any snapshots they have of their cluster to restart the domain with preloaded data.
Q: Does Amazon Elasticsearch Service support cross-zone replication?
Yes. Customers can enable Zone Awareness for their Amazon Elasticsearch domains either at domain creation time or by modifying a live domain. When Zone Awareness is enabled, Amazon Elasticsearch Service will distribute the instances supporting the domain across two different Availability Zones. Then, if replication is enabled in the Elasticsearch engine, Elasticsearch will allocate replicas of the domain across these different instances enabling cross-zone replication.
Q: Does Amazon Elasticsearch Service expose any performance metrics through Amazon CloudWatch?
Yes. Amazon Elasticsearch Service exposes several performance metrics through Amazon CloudWatch including number of nodes, cluster health, searchable documents, EBS metrics (if applicable), CPU, memory and disk utilization for data and master nodes. Please refer to the service documentation for a full listing of available CloudWatch metrics.
Q: I wish to perform security analysis or operational troubleshooting of my Amazon Elasticsearch Service deployment. Can I get a history of all the Amazon Elasticsearch Service API calls made on my account?
Yes. AWS CloudTrail is a web service that records AWS API calls for your account and delivers log files to you. The AWS API call history produced by AWS CloudTrail enables security analysis, resource change tracking, and compliance auditing. Learn more about AWS CloudTrail at the AWS CloudTrail page, and turn it on via CloudTrail's AWS Management Console home page.
Q: What is a snapshot?
A snapshot is a copy of your Amazon Elasticsearch domain at a moment in time.
Q: Why would I need snapshots?
Creating snapshots can be useful in case of data loss caused by node failure, as well as the unlikely event of a hardware failure. You can use snapshots to recover your Amazon Elasticsearch domain with preloaded data or to create a new Amazon Elasticsearch domain with preloaded data. Another common reason to use backups is for archiving purposes. Snapshots are stored in Amazon S3.
Q: Does Amazon Elasticsearch Service provide automated snapshots?
Yes. By default, Amazon Elasticsearch Service will automatically create daily snapshots of each Amazon Elasticsearch domain. The daily snapshots are setup to occur between midnight and 1AM UTC. Customers will also be able to modify the timing of the automated snapshot to better suit their needs.
Q: Can I change the default settings for the automated daily snapshot provided by Amazon Elasticsearch Service?
Yes. You will be able to change the timing of the automated daily snapshot to suit your application schedule.
Q: How long are the automated daily snapshots stored by Amazon Elasticsearch Service?
Amazon Elasticsearch Service will retain the last 14 days worth of automated daily snapshots.
Q: Is there a charge for the automated daily snapshots?
There is no additional charge for the automated daily snapshots. The snapshots are stored for free in an Amazon Elasticsearch Service S3 bucket and will be made available for node recovery purposes.
Q: Can I create additional snapshots of my Amazon Elasticsearch domains as needed?
Yes. You can use the Elasticsearch snapshot API to create additional manual snapshots in addition to the daily-automated snapshots created by Amazon Elasticsearch Service. The manual snapshots are stored in your S3 bucket and will incur relevant Amazon S3 usage charges.
Q: Can snapshots created by the manual snapshot process be used to recover a domain in the event of a failure?
Yes. Customers can create a new Amazon Elasticsearch domain and load data from the snapshot into the newly created Amazon Elasticsearch domain using the Elasticsearch restore API.
Q: What happens to my snapshots when I delete my Amazon Elasticsearch domain?
The daily snapshots retained by Amazon Elasticsearch Service will be deleted as part of domain deletion. Before deleting a domain, you should consider creating a snapshot of the domain in your own S3 buckets using the manual snapshot process. The snapshots stored in your S3 bucket will not be affected if you delete your Amazon Elasticsearch domain.
Q: What types of Elasticsearch logs are exposed by Amazon Elasticsearch Service?
Amazon Elasticsearch Service exposes three Elasticsearch logs through Amazon CloudWatch Logs: error logs, search slow logs, and index slow logs. These logs are useful for troubleshooting performance and stability issues with one’s domain.
Q: What are slow logs?
Slow logs are log files that help track the performance of various stages in an operation. Elasticsearch exposes two kinds of slow logs:
- Index Slow Logs – These logs provide insights into the indexing process and can be used to fine-tune the index setup.
- Search Slow Logs – These logs provide insights into how fast or slow queries and fetches are performing. These logs help fine tune the performance of any kind of search operation on Elasticsearch.
For complete details on Elasticsearch slow logs, please refer to Elasticsearch documentation.
Q: How can I enable slow logs on Amazon ES?
Slows logs can be enabled via the click of a button from the Console or via our CLI and APIs. For more details please refer to our documentation.
Q: Can I only enable slow logs for specific indices?
Yes. You can update the settings for a specific index to enable or disable slow logs for it. For more details refer to our documentation.
Q: Does turning on slow logs in Amazon ES automatically enable logging for all indexes?
No. Turning on slow logs in Amazon ES enables the option to publish the generated logs to Amazon CloudWatch Logs for indices in the given domain. However, in order to generate the logs you have to update the settings for one or more indices to start the logging process. For more details on setting the index configuration for enabling slow logs, please refer to our documentation.
Q: If I turn off the Slow Logs in Amazon ES, does it mean that log files are no longer being generated?
No. The generation of log files are dependent on the index settings. To turn off generation of the log files you have to update the index configuration. For more details on setting the index configuration for enabling slow logs, see our documentation.
Q: Can I change the granularity of logging?
You can only change the granularity of logging for Slow Logs. Elasticsearch exposes multiple levels of logging for slow logs. You need to set the appropriate level in the configuration of your index. For more details on setting the index configuration for enabling slow logs, please refer to Elasticsearch documentation.
Q: Will enabling slow logs or error logs cost me anything?
When slow logs or error logs are enabled, Amazon Elasticsearch Service starts publishing the generated logs to CloudWatch Logs. Amazon Elasticsearch Service does not charge anything for enabling the logs. However, standard CloudWatch charges will apply.
Q: Is there any limit on the size of each log entry?
Yes. Each log entry made into CloudWatch will be limited to 255,000 characters. If your log entry is bigger than that, it will be truncated to 255,000 characters.
Q: What is the recommended best practice for using slow logs?
Slow logs are only needed when you want to troubleshoot your indexes or fine-tune performance. The recommended approach is to only enable logging for those indexes for which you need additional performance insights. Also, once the investigation is done, you should turn off logging so that you don’t incur any additional costs on account of it. For more details, see our documentation.
Q: How can I consume logs from CloudWatch Logs?
CloudWatch offers multiple ways to consume logs. You can view log data, export it to S3, or process it in real time. To learn more, see the CloudWatch Logs developer guide.
Q: Are slow logs available for all versions of Elasticsearch supported by Amazon ES?
Yes. slow logs can be enabled for all versions of Elasticsearch supported by Amazon ES. However, there are slight differences in the way log settings can be specified for each version of Elasticsearch. Please refer to our documentation for more details.
Q: Will the cluster have any down time when logging is turned on or off?
No. There will not be any down-time. Every time the log status is updated, we will deploy a new cluster in the background and replace the existing cluster with the new one. This process will not cause any down time. However, since a new cluster is deployed the update to the log status will not be instantaneous.
Q: What kinds of error logs are exposed by Amazon Elasticsearch Service?
Elasticsearch uses Apache Log4j 2 and its built-in log levels (from least to most severe) of TRACE, DEBUG, INFO, WARN, ERROR, and FATAL. If you enable application logs, Amazon Elasticsearch Service publishes log lines of WARN, ERROR, and FATAL to CloudWatch. Less severe levels (INFO, DEBUG and TRACE) are not available.
Q: How can I enable error logs on Amazon Elasticsearch Service?
Error logs can be enabled from the AWS console or programmatically from our CLI and APIs. For more details please refer to our documentation.
Q: Can I enable error logs for only specific indices?
No, error logs are exposed for the entire domain. That is, once enabled, log entries from all indices in the domain will be made available.
Q: Are error logs available for all versions of Elasticsearch supported by Amazon Elasticsearch Service?
No, error logs are available only for Elasticsearch versions 5.x and above.
Q: Which Elasticsearch versions does the in-place upgrade feature support?
Amazon Elasticsearch Service currently supports in-place version upgrade for domains with Elasticsearch versions 5.x and above. The target versions that we support for the upgrade are 5.6, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.7, 6.8, 7.1 and 7.4. For more details refer our documentation.
Q: My domain runs a version of Elasticsearch older than 5.x. How do I upgrade those domains?
Please refer to our documentation for details on migrating from various Elasticsearch versions.
Q: Will my domain be offline while the in-place upgrade is in progress?
No. Your domain remains available throughout the upgrade process. However, part of the upgrade process involves relocating shards, which can impact domain performance. We recommend upgrading when the load on your domain is low.
Q: How can I check if my domain’s Elasticsearch version can be upgraded?
In-place version upgrade is available only for domains running Elasticsearch 5.x and above. If your domain is of version 5.x or above, you can run the upgrade eligibility check to validate whether your domain can be upgraded to the desired version. Please refer to our documentation to learn more.
Q: What are the tests done by Amazon Elasticsearch Service to validate my domains upgrade eligibility?
For detailed list of the tests we run to validate upgrade eligibility, please refer to our documentation.
Q: Can I update my domain configuration while the version upgrade is in progress?
No. Once the in-place version upgrade has been triggered, you cannot make changes to your domain configuration until the upgrade completes or fails.
You can continue reading and writing data while the upgrade is in progress. Also, you can delete the domain, in which case the upgrade is terminated and the domain deleted.
Q: What happens to the automated system snapshot when the in-place version upgrade is in progress?
The version upgrade process automatically takes a snapshot of the system and only starts the actual upgrade if the snapshot succeeds. If the upgrade is in progress when the automated snapshot’s start time is reached, the automated snapshot is skipped for that day and continued on the next day.
Q8: How does Amazon Elasticsearch Service safeguard against issues that can crop up during version upgrades?
Amazon Elasticsearch Service runs a set of tests before triggering the upgrade to check for known issues that can block the upgrade. If no issues are encountered, the service takes a snapshot of the domain and only after the snapshot it successful, it starts the upgrade process. In case, there are issues with any of these steps the upgrade is not triggered.
Q: What happens if the system encounters issues while performing the in-place version upgrade?
If encountered issues are minor and fixable, Amazon Elasticsearch Service automatically tries to address them and unblock the upgrade. However, if an issue blocks the upgrade, the service reverts back to the snapshot that was taken before the upgrade and logs the error. For more details on viewing the logs from the upgrade progress, please refer to our documentation.
Q: Can I view the history of upgrades on my domain?
Yes. You can view the upgrade logs from the AWS console or request them using the CLI or SDKs. Please refer to our documentation for more details.
Q: Can I pause or cancel the version upgrade after it has been triggered?
No. After the upgrade has been triggered, it cannot be paused or cancelled until it either completes or fails.
Q: Can I run in-place version upgrade on multiple domains in parallel?
Yes. However, if you want to keep all of your domains on the same version, we recommend running the upgrade eligibility check on all domains before upgrading them. This extra step can help catch issues with one domain that might not be present on others.
Q: How long does the in-place version upgrade take?
Depending on the amount of data and the size of the cluster, upgrades can take anywhere from a few minutes to a few hours to complete.
Q: Can I just upgrade the domain quickly without retaining any of the data?
No. With in-place version upgrade, all the data in your cluster is also restored as part of the upgrade process. If you only wish to upgrade the domain alone, you can take a snapshot of your data, delete all your indexes from the domain and then trigger an in-place version upgrade. Alternatively, you can create a separate domain with the newer version and then restore your data to that domain.
Q: Can I downgrade to previous version if I’m not comfortable with the new version?
No. If you need to downgrade to an older version, you must take a snapshot of your upgraded domain and restore it to a domain that uses the older Elasticsearch version.
Q: How can I secure my Amazon Elasticsearch Service domain?
Amazon Elasticsearch Service provides multiple security features so that you can meet your security and compliance needs. Access to Amazon Elasticsearch Service management APIs for operations such as creating and scaling domains are controlled with AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) policies.
Amazon Elasticsearch Service domains can be configured to be accessible with an endpoint within your VPC or a public endpoint accessible to the internet. Network access for VPC endpoints is controlled with security groups and for public endpoints access can be granted or restricted by IP address.
In addition to network-based access control, Amazon Elasticsearch Service provides user authentication via IAM and basic authentication using username and password. Authorization can be granted at the domain level (via Domain Access Policies) as well as at the index, document, and field level (via the fine-grained access control feature powered by Open Distro for Elasticsearch). Additionally, the fine-grained access control feature extends Kibana with read-only views and secure multi-tenant support.
Amazon Elasticsearch Service also supports an integration with Amazon Cognito, to allow your end-users to log-in to Kibana through enterprise identity providers such as Microsoft Active Directory using SAML 2.0, Amazon Cognito User Pools, and more. Once you sign-in, Amazon Cognito establishes a session using the appropriate IAM principal, which provides access to the Amazon Elasticsearch Service domain. These IAM principals are then available to be used with the fine-grained access control feature powered by Open Distro for Elasticsearch.
Q: How does security authentication and authorization work in Amazon Elasticsearch Service?
Amazon Elasticsearch Service security has three main layers: Network, Domain access policies, and fine-grained access control. The first security layer is the network, which determines whether requests reach a domain. We support public access via the internet or VPC access limited to specific security groups in your VPC. The domain access policy is the second security layer. After a request reaches a domain endpoint, the Domain Access Policy allows or denies the request access to a given URL. The Domain Access Policy accepts or rejects requests at the edge of the domain, before they reach Elasticsearch itself. The third and final security layer is fine-grained access control. After a Domain Access Policy allows a request to reach a domain endpoint, fine-grained access control evaluates the user credentials and either authenticates the user or denies the request. If fine-grained access control authenticates the user, it fetches all roles mapped to that user and uses the complete set of permissions to determine what data the user has access to.
Q: Does Amazon Elasticsearch Service support encryption?
Yes, Amazon Elasticsearch Service supports encryption at rest through AWS Key Management Service (KMS), node-to-node encryption over TLS, and the ability to require clients to communicate of HTTPS. Encryption at rest encrypts shards, log files, swap files, and automated S3 snapshots. You can use AWS-managed keys or choose one of your own. Node-to-node encryption enables TLS for all communications between nodes. Amazon Elasticsearch Service automatically deploys and rotates certificates throughout the life of the domain. If you require you clients to communicate over HTTPS, you also have the ability to specify the minimum TLS version.
Q: How will I be charged and billed for my use of Amazon Elasticsearch Service?
You pay only for what you use, and there are no minimum or setup fees. You are billed based on:
- Amazon Elasticsearch instance hours – Based on the class (e.g. Standard Small, Large, Extra Large) of the Amazon Elasticsearch instance consumed. Partial Amazon Elasticsearch instance hours consumed are billed as full hours.
- Storage (per GB per month) – EBS Storage capacity you have provisioned to your Amazon Elasticsearch instance. If you scale your provisioned storage capacity within the month, your bill will be pro-rated.
- Provisioned IOPS per month – EBS Provisioned IOPS rate, regardless of IOPS consumed (for Amazon Elasticsearch Service Provisioned IOPS (SSD) Storage only).
- Data transfer – Regular AWS data transfer charges apply.
Please refer to the Amazon Elasticsearch Service pricing page for detailed pricing information.
Q: When does billing of my Amazon Elasticsearch domain begin and end?
Billing commences for an Amazon Elasticsearch instance as soon as the instance is available. Billing continues until the Amazon Elasticsearch instance terminates, which would occur upon deletion or in the event of instance failure.
Q: What defines billable instance hours for Amazon Elasticsearch Service?
Amazon Elasticsearch instance hours are billed for each hour your instance is running in an available state. If you no longer wish to be charged for your Amazon Elasticsearch instance, you must delete the domain to avoid being billed for additional instance hours. Partial Amazon Elasticsearch instance hours consumed are billed as full hours.
Q: What is UltraWarm?
UltraWarm is a fully-managed, low-cost, warm storage tier for Amazon Elasticsearch Service. It is compatible with Elasticsearch and Kibana, enabling you to analyze data using the same tools that Amazon Elasticsearch Service provides today. UltraWarm seamlessly integrates with Amazon Elasticsearch Service’s existing features such as integrated alerting, SQL querying, and more.
Q: Why should I use UltraWarm?
UltraWarm enables you to cost effectively expand the data you want to analyze on Amazon Elasticsearch Service gaining valuable insights on data that previously may have been deleted or archived. With UltraWarm, you can now economically retain more of your data to interactively analyze it whenever you want.
Q: How does UltraWarm relate to/work with Amazon Elasticsearch Service?
Amazon Elasticsearch Service supports two integrated storage tiers, hot and UltraWarm. The hot tier is powered by data nodes which are used for indexing, updating, and providing the fastest access to data. UltraWarm nodes complement the hot tier by providing low cost, read-only tier for older and less-frequently accessed data.
Q: Why does UltraWarm only need primary data for durability?
UltraWarm uses Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) for storage, which is designed for 99.999999999 percent durability, and removes the need to configure an Elasticsearch replica for your warm data. Additionally, if you have more than one UltraWarm node, in the event of a node failure, the other UltraWarm nodes will automatically access the data as needed.
Q: How much data can I store in UltraWarm?
UltraWarm supports up to 3 PB of primary data per domain. UltraWarm is designed to allow you to fully utilize 100% of this storage and because UltraWarm stores data on S3 for durability, you do not need to use additional storage for Elasticsearch replicas.
Q: What are the performance characteristics of UltraWarm?
UltraWarm delivers an interactive experience in Kibana by implementing granular Elasticsearch I/O caching, prefetching, and query engine optimizations to provide similar performance to high-density instances using local storage.
Q: How can I start using UltraWarm?
To get started with UltraWarm, create a new Amazon Elasticsearch Service domain with UltraWarm enabled via the console, CLI, or APIs. Once your domain is created you can move data from hot to UltraWarm using the Elasticsearch APIs.