Calculating Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) with Amazon Web Services IoT SiteWise

by Juan Aristizabal and Syed Rehan | on

Introduction

This blog post represents the second entry in a series on using Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) with Amazon Web Services IoT SiteWise . In this post, we will do a deep dive on how to calculate OEE using Amazon Web Services IoT SiteWise native capabilities to collect, store, transform, and display calculations as an end-to-end solution. We will look at a Baggage Handling System (BHS) located at an airport as a use case to illustrate the process.  Please, first read part 1 of this series, Industrial Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) guide with Amazon Web Services IoT SiteWise , for more context on the use case.

Additionally, we will show how you can automate OEE elements to streamline the implementation of this solution in many other use cases, like manufacturing production lines in pharmaceutical, food and beverage industries. To help you put into practice the concepts presented in this blog, we also provide a code repository that lets you stream synthetic data to Amazon Web Services IoT SiteWise to create an OEE dashboard using the calculations presented here.

Use case

Before diving deep into the OEE calculations, let’s define the example we will be using as a frame of reference. Our example is a BHS and the necessary data points for an OEE calculation are gathered from the installed hardware at the BHS in the carousel.  The hardware consists of four sensors: two vibration sensors for motor monitoring, one speed sensor for conveyor surveillance, and one photo electric sensor counting the baggage throughput.

The architecture of the solution is as follows:

Data Ingestion Reference Architecture
Sensor data is collected and formatted via CloudRail , an Amazon Web Services Partner whose solution greatly simplifies the collection and streaming of IIoT data to Amazon Web Services IoT SiteWise. This integration is configurable through the CloudRail management Portal directly.  The architecture includes additional components for making the sensor data available to other Amazon Web Services services through an S3 bucket.

Amazon Web Services IoT SiteWise pre-requisites

Before sending data to Amazon Web Services IoT SiteWise, you must create a model and define its properties.  As mentioned earlier, we have four sensors that will be grouped into one model, with the following measurements (data streams from equipment):

Model:Carousel

Asset Name: CarouselAsset

Property {

Measurement: Photo.Distance

Measurement: Speed.PDV1

Measurement: VibrationL.Temperature

Measurement: VibrationR.Temperature

}

In addition to the measurements, we will add a few attributes (static data) to the asset model. The attributes represent different values that we need in the OEE calculations.

Model:Carousel

Asset Name: CarouselAsset

Property {

Attribute: SerialNumber

Attribute: Photo.distanceBase

Attribute: Photo.distanceThold

Attribute: Speed.max_speed_alarm

Attribute: Speed.min_speed_alarm

Attribute: Vibration.max_temp_c_alarm

Attribute: Ideal_Run_Rate_5_min

}

Now, let’s go to the and create the Carousel model and asset that represent the airport BHS.

Open the navigation menu on the left, choose Build, Models, and then choose Create Model to define the attributes and measurements for this model:

IoT SiteWise Model creation

For more information on creating asset models visit the documentation .

Calculating OEE

Let’s take a look at the OEE definition and its components.

The standard OEE formula is:

Component Formula
Availability Run_time/(Run_time + Down_time)
Quality Successes / (Successes + Failures)
Performance ((Successes + Failures) / Run_Time) / Ideal_Run_Rate
OEE Availability * Quality * Performance

Let’s look at the parameter definition for the BHS. For a full description of OEE parameters please visit the documentation .

  • Ideal_Run_Rate:  In our case, the ideal run rate is 300 bags/hour, which is equivalent to 0.83333 bags/second. This value depends on the system and should be obtained from the manufacturer or based on field observation performance.

Availability

Availability = Run_time/(Run_time + Down_time)

We have 4 sensors on the BHS and we need to define what measurements (temperature, vibration, etc.) from the sensors we want to include in the calculation.  The temperature coming from the two vibration sensors (in Celsius) and the speed of the carousel coming from the speed sensor (m/s) will dictate the availability state.

The acceptable values for correct operation are based on the following attributes of the Asset Model.

Vibration.max_temp_c_alarm = 50

Speed.min_speed_alarm = 28

Speed.max_speed_alarm = 32

Let’s define Equipment_State, a data transform that provides the current state of the BHS in numerical code:
1024 – The machine is idle
1020 – A fault, like an abnormal operation of the system, high temperature or a speed value not within the normal range defined
1000 – A planned stop
1111 – A normal operation

The idle state of the BHS is not defined in this simplified use case, however, it is possible to integrate other data streams into Amazon Web Services IoT SiteWise and register information coming from Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) or other systems where a human operator dictates if the system is idle or not.

To add a transform, go to the model on the Amazon Web Services IoT SiteWise console and choose Edit. Scroll to the transform definitions and provide a Name, Data type (Double) and enter the following formula on the respective field:

Equipment_state =

if((Speed.PDV1>Speed.max_speed_alarm) or (Speed.PDV1<Speed.min_speed_alarm) or (VibrationL.Temperature>Vibration.max_temp_c_alarm) or (VibrationR.temperature>Vibration.max_temp_c_alarm),1020).elif(eq(Speed.PDV1,0),1000,1111)

Equipment state transform definition for OEE calculation

The formula should look like this as you enter it in the console. The UI will bring suggestions for you to select attributes and measurements already defined in the model to build the formula.

Complete formula for equipment state

Once Equipment_State is defined, create the following derived transforms to capture the different states of the BHS. Transforms can reference other transforms.

Defining other transforms for OEE calculation

Proceed to define the following metrics to aggregate machine data over time. Keep the same interval for each metric.

Fault_Time = statetime(Fault) – The machine’s total fault time (in seconds)

Stop_Time = statetime(Stop) – The machine’s total planned stop time (in seconds)

Run_Time = statetime(Running) – The machine’s total time (in seconds) running without issue.

Down_Time = Idle_Time + Fault_Time + Stop_Time – The machine’s total downtime

The metric definitions of the model should look like this:

Metric Definitions - OEE Availability

Quality

Quality = Successes / (Successes + Failures)

Here, we need to define what constitutes a success and a failure. In this case our unit of production is a counted bag, so how do we define when a bag is counted successfully and when it is not?  we use the measurements and data that are available from the BHS’s four sensors.

The bags are counted by looking at the distance the photo electric sensor is providing, therefore when there is an object passing the band, the sensor will report a distance that is less that the “base” distance. This is a simple way to calculate the bags passing, but at the same time it is prone to multiple conditions that can impact the accuracy of the measurement.

We use these model attributes on the quality calculation:

Photo.distanceBase = 108

Photo.distanceThold = 0.1

The Photo.distanceBase is the distance reported by the sensor, when there are no objects in front of it. This value might need to be calibrated on a regular basis and adjusted, factors like vibration and misalignment can lead to false positive counts.
Photo.distanceThold is used for defining a threshold for how sensitive is the sensor, in order to avoid counting debris or small objects (like bag attachments or belts) as a regular bag.

We then establish two transforms for bag count:

Bag_Count = if(Photo.Distance < Photo.distanceBase,1,0)

Dubious_Bag_Count = if((gt(Photo.Distance,Photo.distanceBase*(1-Photo.distanceThold)) and lt(Photo.Distance,Photo.distanceBase*0.95)) or (Speed.PDV1>Speed.max_speed_alarm) or (Photo.Distance>Photo.distanceBase),1,0)

Formula for dubious bag count

Bag_count will account for all bags passing in front of the photo electric sensor, and Dubious_Bag_Count will count the objects detected as bags under two abnormal conditions:

  1. The distance detected is within the range of 95% and 90% of the base distance; accounting for small objects and very small variations in the measurements, indications of changes due to vibration or a sensor not properly attached.
  2. Bags counted when the speed of the carousel is above the limit defined; under this condition the sensor can miss counting bags that are too close together on the carousel.

NOTE: the above conditions are simple rules and the right values for distance base and thresholds need to be reviewed and analyzed with field data for better results.

Let’s define successes and failures as metrics:

Successes = sum(Bag_Count) – sum(Dubious_Bag_Count)

Failures = sum(Dubious_Bag_Count)

Finally we can define OEE Availability as a metric as well:

Quality = Successes / (Successes + Failures)

Remember to use the same metric interval as in all other metric definitions.

Performance

Performance = ((Successes + Failures) / Run_Time) / Ideal_Run_Rate

We have Successes and Failures from our Quality calculation, as well as Run_Time from Availability. Therefore, we just need to use the Ideal_Run_Rate_5_min, which in our system is 300 bags/hour = 0.0833333 bags/second.

OEE Value

Having Availability, Quality, and Performance we proceed to define our last metric for OEE.

OEE = Availability * Quality * Performance

Simplify transforms and metric definitions

As an alternative, the OEE components defined as transforms and metrics can be defined programmatically instead of using the Amazon Web Services Console. This is particularly useful when there are complex formulas that involve multiple variables, like the Equipment_State and Dubious_Bag_Count transforms; also, automated solutions are less error prone than manual ones and can be configured consistently across multiple environments. Let’s take a look at how we can do it using the Amazon Web Services SDK for Python (Boto3) .

First, identify the measurements and attributes property IDs that you will be referencing on the transform/metric calculation, as well as the model ID.

Carousel Model Property IDs

Then define a JSON for the metric/transform. For instance, to create a new transform to calculate the Equipment_State of the BHS we need the following attributes:

Vibration.max_temp_c_alarm

Speed.max_speed_alarm

Speed.min_speed_alarm

And the following measurements:

VibrationL.Temperature

VibrationR.Temperature

Speed.PDV1

Create a file following this structure. Remember to replace the propertyIds and save it as equipment_state.json:

{
     "name": "Equipment_State",
     "dataType": "DOUBLE",
     "type": {
       "transform": {
         "expression": "if((var_speedpdv1>var_speedmax_speed_alarm) or (var_speedpdv1<var_speedmin_speed_alarm) or (var_vibrationltemperature>var_vibrationmax_temp_c_alarm) or (var_vibrationrtemperature>var_vibrationmax_temp_c_alarm),1020).elif(eq(var_speedpdv1,0),1000,1111)",
         "variables": [
           {
             "name": "var_vibrationrtemperature",
             "value": {
               "propertyId": "b9554855-b50f-4b56-a5f2-572fbd1a8967"
             }
           },
           {
             "name": "var_vibrationltemperature",
             "value": {
               "propertyId": "e3f1c4e0-a05c-4652-b640-7e3402e8d6a1"
             }
           },
           {
             "name": "var_vibrationmax_temp_c_alarm",
             "value": {
               "propertyId": "f54e16fd-dd9f-46b4-b8b2-c411cdef79a2"
             }
           },
           {
             "name": "var_speedpdv1",
             "value": {
               "propertyId": "d17d07c7-442d-4897-911b-4b267519ae3d"
             }
           },
           {
             "name": "var_speedmin_speed_alarm",
             "value": {
               "propertyId": "7a927051-a569-41c0-974f-7b7290d7e73c"
             }
           },
           {
             "name": "var_speedmax_speed_alarm",
             "value": {
               "propertyId": "0897a3b4-1c52-4e80-80fc-0a632e09da7e"
             }
           }
         ]
       }
     }
}

The main expression is as follows:

if((var_speedpdv1>var_speedmax_speed_alarm) or (var_speedpdv1<var_speedmin_speed_alarm) or (var_vibrationltemperature>var_vibrationmax_temp_c_alarm) or (var_vibrationrtemperature>var_vibrationmax_temp_c_alarm),1020).elif(eq(var_speedpdv1,0),1000,1111)

Obtain the script update_asset_model_sitewise.py and more details on how to stream data to Amazon Web Services IoT SiteWise by visiting this public repository.

Then, run the following script passing the model ID and the name of the file previously defined.

#python3 update_asset_model_sitewise.py --assetModelId [Asset Model ID] --property_file [JSON File defining the new property] --region [AWS Region]

After the script returns a successful response, the new property ID created can be obtained directly from the Amazon Web Services Console as described before or by using the Amazon Web Services CLI to query the updated model definition and the jq utility to filter the result.

#aws iotsitewise describe-asset-model --asset-model-id [model ID] | jq .'assetModelProperties[] | select(.name=="Equipment_State_API")'.id

You can then repeat the process with the other transforms and metrics in order to create all the required components for the OEE calculation.

For more information on updating an Amazon Web Services IoT SiteWise asset model please visit the API reference .

Conclusion

In this blog post, we explored how we can use sensor data from a real-life scenario to calculate OEE and get insightful information from our physical system by using Amazon Web Services IoT SiteWise native capabilities. We walked through the process of identifying the available data and we defined the elements that constitute the main OEE elements, Availability, Quality and Performance, to finally take a deep dive into the calculations and how we can automate them.

As a call to action, we invite you to take the content presented here further, applying the OEE calculation process to your own use cases, as well as using the automation tools provided to simplify and streamline the creation of data that helps monitor your industrial systems with accuracy.

In the event you don’t have available data to use, we encourage you to follow the steps outlined in this public repository to easily try Amazon Web Services IoT SiteWise with synthetic data and discover the insightful information OEE can give you.

About the Authors

Juan Aristizabal

Juan Aristizabal

Juan Aristizabal is a Solutions Architect at Amazon Web Services. He supports Canada West greenfield customers on their journey to the cloud. He has more than 10 years of experience working with IT transformations for companies, ranging from Data Center technologies, virtualization and cloud.  On his spare time, he enjoys traveling with his family and playing with synthesizers and modular systems.

Syed Rehan

Syed Rehan

Syed Rehan   is a Sr. Global IoT Cybersecurity Specialist at Amazon Web Services (Amazon Web Services) working within Amazon Web Services IoT Service team and is based out of London. He is covering global span of customers working with security specialists, developers and decision makers to drive the adoption of Amazon Web Services IoT services. Syed has in-depth knowledge of cybersecurity, IoT and cloud and works in this role with global customers ranging from start-up to enterprises to enable them to build IoT solutions with the Amazon Web Services Eco system.